Iceberg theory pdf

Many organizations seek effective methods to assemble and motivate their staffing as well as create a harmonious workplace environment. In particular, Organizational Development Consultants and Industrial Organizational Psychologists are given the task of offering organizations intervention strategies to advance and increase organizational effectiveness.

Therefore, to manage an organization effectively, a consultant must view it as a machine to repair what is fixable and examine any underlining assumptions in an effort to get an accurate outcome.

For example, the Iceberg Model can be used to describe and diagnose many interventions for organizations such as individual behavior, systems thinking, motivation and drivers, and performance enhancement. As a result, what is visible to the organization is behavior, below is what actually drives behavior and can make the difference in the overall success of the organization.

Many factors determine whether employees will be motivated or not.

What Is Sigmund Freud's Iceberg Theory?

To begin, after an employee is hired and trained for a position, motivation drives the employee to do the job efficiently and strive for the highest performance level.

Rubin suggests SMART specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound goals to achieve success in job performance and job satisfaction. Additionally, to expand the success of motivating employees, an incentive such as providing feedback on goal attainment and performance levels will increase performance. Although, these different motivators will produce different results, the challenge exists in engaging employees with intrinsic motivators.

For this reason, extrinsic motivators are measurable, tangible and support leadership within the organization. However, this only appeases the surface value of an employee but does not capture the true essence of an employee which is underneath the surface. Since intrinsic motivators are found underneath the surface or under the waterline of the iceberg and not easily seen or recognized, there are methods to effectively develop these motivators.

Here are three keys to developing intrinsic motivation:. Developing core motivator drivers such as extrinsic and intrinsic will create a stable organizational culture. Aamodt, M. An applied approach. Avey, J. Psychological ownership: Theoretical extensions, measurement, and relation to work outcomes. Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century.

Rubin, R. Mikler is the founder and principal consultant of V. Professional Services, a consulting firm providing organizational efficiency and administrative office management services. She can be reached at vmikler hotmail. To learn more about our Certification Programs, please click on the link below:. Three Keys to Developing Intrinsic Motivation Since intrinsic motivators are found underneath the surface or under the waterline of the iceberg and not easily seen or recognized, there are methods to effectively develop these motivators.

Here are three keys to developing intrinsic motivation: Employee involvement. Allow employees to contribute their ideas, make decisions, and perform all their tasks with responsibility and interest. Employees will make every effort to improve their performance with effectiveness and efficient outcomes.

Psychological ownership leads to employees being empowered to create, shape, and take decisions to make his job duties. Thus, when employees are empowered, their level of commitment in the organization will increase. Build relationships. Belonging and having relationships is the most essential intrinsic motivator. As humans, we are wired to connect and belong with others.

However, many senior leaders and employees do not have time to interact with each other. With the lack of time available to connect with peers at work, will result in isolation and the void of belonging. So to increase this intrinsic motivator, take a minute to have a meaningful conversation or lunch outing with a colleague. Make time to connect with people outside the team and business department.These desires are not normally yielded by traditional marketing surveys and research, or even observation of current patterns.

Therefore, marketers are always alert to the latent desires of consumers, whose deepest desires are unfulfilled. Subjects: Social sciences — Business and Management.

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iceberg theory pdf

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Show Summary Details Overview iceberg principle. Reference entries iceberg principle in A Dictionary of Marketing 3 Length: 63 words. All rights reserved. Sign in to annotate. Delete Cancel Save.

iceberg theory pdf

Cancel Save.The iceberg model for competencies takes the help of an iceberg to explain the concept of competency. An iceberg which has just one-ninth of its volume above water and the rest remains beneath the surface in the sea. Similarly, a competency has some components which are visible like knowledge and skills but other behavioural components like attitude, traits, thinking styles, self-image, organizational fit etc are hidden or beneath the surface.

So, is there a relation between the competencies which are above the surface and those which lie beneath? Spencer and Signe M. Spencer explain that a behaviour is incompletely defined without intent.

The aspects of competencies which lie below the surface like attitude, traits, thinking styles etc directly influence the usage of knowledge and skills to complete a job effectively.

Iceberg Model: Using Motivation to Enhance Performance

Let us try to understand it through an example. A manager sitting at the farthest corner of the office keeps his door open all the time, how does one evaluate whether it is for fresh air, claustrophobia or an indication that his subordinates are invited to reach out to him anytime.

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Therefore, intent behind a displayed action is necessary to understand the action and its implication fully. In more complex jobs, these behavioural aspects, motives and traits become more important than the skills and knowledge required to do the job.

Think of a soldier at the war front, he knows how to use the weapon he is holding, but thinks that the war is unjust and refuses to fire. In organizations, senior level hiring is therefore a time consuming and elaborate affair as it becomes necessary to establish the alignment between the organizational and individual motivation and aspirations.

Developing the two levels of competencies also takes different routes. The visible competencies like knowledge and skills can be easily developed through training and skill building exercises however the behavioural competencies are rather difficult to assess and develop.

It takes more time and effort intensive exercises, like psychotherapy, counseling, coaching and mentoring, developmental experiences etc. In the traditional method of hiring, most of the organizations looked at just the visible components of competencies; the knowledge and skills, believing that the behavioural aspects can be developed through proper guidance and good management. However, with major shifts in the conventional methods of people management, the hiring process has also undergone a change therefore a lot of emphasis is being put on the hidden behavioural aspects as well to make a sound decision.

Hence, a complete picture regarding the competence of a person consists of both visible and hidden aspects and it becomes necessary to understand both to arrive at identifying the best man for a job. View All Articles. To Know more, click on About Us.

The use of this material is free for learning and education purpose. Please reference authorship of content used, including link s to ManagementStudyGuide. Competency Based Assessment. Competency Based Assessment What are Competencies? Total Slides: Ice-Berg Model The pictorial representation of the model is as below:.In his book Emotional IntelligenceGoleman tells us that anger causes blood to flow to our hands, making it easier for us to strike an enemy or hold a weapon.

Most of an iceberg is hidden below the surface of the water.

iceberg theory pdf

For example, Dave believed he had an anger problem. When his wife would make a request of him, he would criticize her.

As he worked on discovering his dreams within conflict and started noticing the space between his anger and his actions, he opened up the door into a profound realization. Instead, he felt like his wife was placing impossible demands on him. By seeking to understand and accept his anger, rather than fix or suppress it, he began to improve his marriage by recognizing his anger as a signal for a need—a need to set healthy boundaries for what he would and would not do.

As Susan David, Ph. However, there are times when other emotions are spurring the anger and we use anger to protect the raw feelings that lie beneath it. So his anger was formed by that disappointment with himself and protected him from deeply painful shame. Learning to recognize anger as not only a basic, valid emotion, but also as a protector of our raw feelings, can be incredibly powerful.

It can lead to healing conversations that allow couples, as well as children and parents, to understand each other better. Below is what we call the Anger Iceberg, because it shows other emotions and feelings that may lurk below the surface. We want to fight back as our own anger boils to the surface. If this happens, we get in a heated verbal battle which leaves both parties feeling misunderstood and hurt. Here are three powerful tips for listening to anger.

This brings us closer together. Communicate that you understand and accept their feelings. Not to mention they will feel heard, which builds trust over time. Or maybe you try to solve their anger for them because their anger scares you. Identify the obstacle Anger is often caused by an obstacle blocking a goal. By doing so, you will not only help them to understand their anger, but you will become closer to them in the process.

The Marriage Minute is our email newsletter that will improve your marriage in 60 seconds or less. Got a minute? Sign up below. Kyle works in The Love Lab where he nerds out on the science of relationships. Search for:.

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Have you ever wondered why we get angry?To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Fabio Tardim. Omission, as a writing style, was refined and popularised in English Literature by Hemingway in the early 20th Century as an experimental way towards Modernism.

iceberg principle

Named the Iceberg Theory by its creator, the style became associated to him but its concept is not something particularly new in Literature. Poets would have made use of a similar idea when applying words to denote and connote different things at the same time.

While there is very little denotation to an omission, one can find a lot of connotations to it. The principle is essentially the same but its form is completely distinct. By omitting certain characteristics of a story the writer leaves the fully understanding of it on the shoulders of the reader.

An efficient technique of creating a three dimensional prose where the reader not only is thrown in a different world as an observer but also has to keep the track of changes and fill the gaps left by the writer.

The Iceberg Theory itself rely consistently on three main characteristics, being the static sentences, the lack of internal punctuation, and sentences that are juxtaposed, building their meaning on each other. The narrative is like a collage, several pictures put together without much explanation but rather suggestions, and relying on each other to build coherence and meaning.

Therefore it seems particularly necessary for a better understanding of such a story that the reader has some previous knowledge, or is familiarised with concepts and customs of a particular time, or culture, from where a certain story comes. Many would say that is a pre-requisite for any novel, and that is very true, but when a story rely strongly on the reader to fill the gaps, this knowledge is not only desirable, as a pre-requisite would be, but perhaps essential to make it a pleasant reading; and nonetheless one that can be understood.

There are though several hints at what sort of person she is, or represents, but again the lack of profundity serves the purpose of the story as to have Swift objectified. At this point the reader knows only that she lives with her aunt, she is in her early thirties, and works as a school teacher. Kate Swift is described in few words, briefly as seen, yet her characterisation is quite clear or, at least, able to be distinguished. Another interesting development in the story shows, without directly narrating it, how the Reverend has not a deep sense of faith.

While facing temptation, his sermons become more passionate, and finally he gets the power of God in himself only when freed from his temptation. It is through his inability to explain his estate of mind that the reader can assume he is a frustrated man. The comparison between Anderson and Hemingway is inevitable.

He overlooks several details, leaves things unsaid, ignore transitions, conceals some vital information and yet, reveals the essential while the rest is implied and understood. Tardim 4 Another intrinsic characteristic well portrayed in A Clean, Well-Lighted Place is the lack of transitions and, moreover, the passage of time. In his cinematic style, Hemingway ignores descriptions of time, or transitions between one scene and another that would help the reader to establish it.

He smiled and stood before a bar The waiter was, possibly, walking towards the bar, deep in his thoughts, and suddenly he is already there ready for a drink. This scarcity of information is what makes the Iceberg Theory what it is. The writer still guides readers through but it is up to the readers to perceive the meaning within, and the suggestions concealed.Rather than being a theory unto itself, Freud uses the iceberg is as an explanatory tool for his theory of the conscious and unconscious.

In essence, Freud explains his theory topographically through the use of the iceberg as a dominant metaphor. Freud believed that much of what defines human behavior, including impulses, urges, thoughts, emotions and feelings, comes to the individual person in ways that she in not entirely cognizant of.

Instead, said phenomena are produced or issue from a realm of being he termed "the unconscious. This small part is what actually controls the traits and behaviors typically labeled personality. Because of this theoretical separation between the small definable portion of being and the large, uncontrolled subconscious portion, Freud offers the topographically apt analogy of the iceberg, where the tiny visible portion at the top obscures the size and power of the submerged aspect.

In technical Freudian terms, the portion nearest the surface of the water -- personality -- is called the ego. Just below the ego, nearing the bottom, is the superego, the part of a person's interiority that offers moral or social restraint against the unknown, unauthorized impulses of the subconscious.

Finally, the greatest portion of the hidden mass is the id, the darkest, most recessed province of human thought, motivation and desire. Home World View.

What Is Behavioral Management Theory? What Is Frustration Aggression Theory?The Iceberg Technique, a now famous style of writing that is commonly used but seldom mastered. By not describing everything that happens, merely describing the key parts that lead to emotions and reactions, he could get the reader to think for himself and make the world of his story more immersive. The Iceberg Technique can be used as a solution to giving books the same immersive feeling as seeing a movie. The iceberg reference comes from how only the tip of an iceberg is showing, under the surface lies the most of the actual mass, exactly like the famous works of Hemingway.

This does not mean that you could just decide to be few-worded and vague in your descriptions, because the whole point is that there is an iceberg.

The iceberg is the story and it is essential that you know the whole story before you can pick out what needs to be told.

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If a writer of prose knows enough of what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them.

The dignity of movement of an ice-berg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water. A writer who omits things because he does not know them only makes hollow places in his writing. He did not choose this manner of writing because he thought it to be relaxing or undemanding, but because he wholeheartedly thought it would improve his work.

As he tells it himself: If a writer of prose knows enough of what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. Gilla Gilla Laddar Om du vill veta mer, inklusive hur du kontrollerar cookies, se: Cookie-policy.


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